1) 5G communication technology
5G technology, namely the fifth generation of mobile communication technology, is different from 4G, 3G and 2G. 5G is not an independent and brand-new wireless access technology. It is the general term for the evolution of the existing wireless access technology and integration of some newly added complementary wireless access technologies. To a certain extent, 5G is the convergence network in its true sense, providing high-speed, safe and fast connection between people, between people and things, and between things with integrated and unified standards.
Compared with current 4G communication technology, 5G communication has been greatly improved on the following key performances: peak rate, flow density, spectral efficiency, capacity per unit area, connection density and others (see Figure 1). It has the characteristics of enhanced mobile bandwidth, massive machine-type communication, high reliability and low delay communication, which provide important technical support for realizing interconnecting of everything. It is one of the important keys to open digital future and intelligent future.
Figure 1 Comparison of main performance parameters between 5G and 4G technologies
Focusing on characteristics of 5G, such as high bandwidth, low delay, multi-link, high reliability and so on, the combination of 5G and vehicle networking has produced a number of vehicle networking applications, mainly in the aspects of safety, efficiency, content and so on. Among them, the common safety category includes emergency braking warning, collision warning at intersection, red light warning, etc. For the efficiency category, it includes speed guidance, priority passage, green wave passage, etc. For the content category, it includes vehicle and machine interconnection applications, information entertainment, etc.
2) 5G vehicle networking applications
Yutong Bus Networking Research and Development Center started to make product planning for 5G vehicle networking application based on the application scenarios of Yutong commercial vehicles in October 2018. It conducted the comprehensive research and analysis from aspects of industry analysis, technical solutions, finished vehicle adaptation, scene application, etc., and planned the road map for 5G vehicle networking application.
First of all, Yutong carried out product planning of on-board networking terminal products for 5G vehicle networking application. The specific process is as follows:
In March of 2019, completion of planning and project approval for 5G networking terminal project products marked that 5G networking terminal products entered the implementation stage. After the prototype demand analysis, prototype technology plan, prototype development and joint debugging, etc., realized the 5G network terminal prototype development at the end of August 2019.
The 5G networking terminal developed by Yutong was unveiled at the Wuxi Summit of the 2019 World Internet of Things Expo held in September of 2019 and Busworld Brussels 2019 in October, marking that 5G networking products of Yutong stands in the forefront of the industry in the field of commercial vehicles.
In November of 2019, Yutong started the development of 5G networking terminal for mass production, optimized and improved from the aspects of hardware, software and vehicle connection scenario applications. Yutong finished the development of 5G network terminal for mass production at the end of April 2020, and took the lead in the application of intelligent networking vehicle demonstration project.
Secondly, based on the application scenarios and requirements of Yutong commercial vehicles, Yutong carried out planning and development for 5G vehicle networking scenario applications, and supported the project to be implemented. The specific 5G vehicle networking scenario applications are described as follows:
2.1) Application scenarios of HD video post-back
Restricted by 4G network bandwidth, when uploading vehicle-mounted video, either resolution of the video, or number of frames of the uploaded video will be reduced. In case of large screen viewing in dispatching room, the remote surveillance video is not clear, which makes customers have a very bad experience.
Under 5G communication condition, limitation of mobile network data transmission bandwidth has been broken. In the demonstration project of intelligent network connection, 4 channels of 1080p HD video post-back had been realized, which has greatly enhanced definition of the remote monitoring video and improved experience of customer. The application of HD video post-back scenario is shown in Figure 2. It supports multi-channel HD video post-back such as driver, road condition, front cabin, 360-degree panoramic view and so on.
Figure 2 Application scenario of 5G vehicle networking high definition video post-back
2.2) OTA upgrade application scenarios
With improvement of vehicle intelligence level, vehicle will be equipped with more intelligent electronic parts, such as intelligent instrument, intelligent center console, vehicle control unit, engine ECU, etc., among which hardware is the carrier. For better user experience, it should be realized through continuously iterative software update.
Combined with 5G communication networking and new electrical network architecture of the vehicle, OTA upgrade will not be too troubled by the big upgrade package. The speed for downloading and updating electronic parts software will be greatly improved, which further enhances remote maintenance ability of the vehicle.
In the demonstration project of intelligent networking, OTA upgrade package can be downloaded quickly relying on 5G high bandwidth feature Combined with the electrical architecture of vehicle Ethernet, it makes sure that the software upgrade of electronic parts can be faster and more stable. The application scenario of OTA upgrade is shown in Figure 3:
Figure 3. Application scenario of 5G OTA upgrade
2.3) Vehicle-road collaboration application scenarios
For vehicle-road collaboration, it means that the vehicle is connected to road infrastructure (Vehicle to Infrastructure). It consists of two categories of facilities. The first category is traffic lights, bus stops, roadblocks and other basic traffic facilities. The second category is road end sensing equipment, such as blind area radar, video sensing equipment and so on. Among them, when vehicles are interconnected with the first category of infrastructures, scenario applications like the traffic light coordination can be realized. Through the interconnection between vehicles and the second category infrastructures, blind area detection, vehicle-road coordination and blind area monitoring vehicle scenario application can be realized, as shown in Figure 4:
Figure 4 Application scenario of 5G vehicle networking vehicle road coordination/blind area monitoring
In the implemented intelligent networking project, specific application scenarios are described as follows:
When an intelligent networking vehicle drives to a traffic light, strategy of passing priority will be implemented according to signal priority result. The signal priority schemes include active priority, passive priority, coordination priority and so on. On the basis of fully considering for traffic efficiency of social vehicle at intersections, adopt the overall optimal solution to realize the priority passing of public transport vehicles through vehicle control, light control and other strategies to improve the operational efficiency of public transport vehicles.
According to real-time position, speed and distance from the intersection of the intelligent networking vehicle, calculate the reasonable speed of vehicle passing through the intersection, and the speed is sent to the intelligent networking vehicle to facilitate the driving decisions and improve vehicle traffic efficiency.
Blind area detection
Through accurate detection, identification and processing of motor vehicles, non-motor vehicles and pedestrians within the detection range, target location information can be obtained. The early warning information will be sent to instrument through V2X communication, and the driver can be alerted by means of sound and light, so as to realize the early warning of danger and improve the safety of vehicle driving.