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How to improve mobility in the increasingly congested metropolitan areas? Municipalities worldwide are implementing modern transit systems to tackle fast growing cities and congestion. There is always the question: do we want a Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT), Metro or Light Rail? Last year a study - 'Effects of new bus and rail rapid transit systems – an international review' - was published in Transport Review. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2017.1301594
LNG, Liquified Natural Gas, is not yet an alternative fuel for buses and coaches. Although for long range vehicles like coaches it might be interesting to explore this. The technique is here because some of the major truck manufacturers already have LNG vehicles on the road. Volvo, Scania and Iveco launched their LNG trucks last year. During the presentation of the Volvo-trucks it was said that in Europe there are now some 3.000 LNG vehicles on the road, but over 100.000 in China.
Although LNG looks interesting for long range coaches Volvo denied having plans for LNG coaches. This could change since Shell released it's annual LNG Outlook and signals a growing demand for LNG by 29 million tonnes to 293 million tonnes in 2017.It simply means that LNG as an alternative fuel is gaining. Last year Frost & Sullivan’s Mobility team predicted a boost for the medium-heavy duty CNG (CompressedNatural Gas) and LNG truck market and said that 'by 2025, nearly one in 10 trucks sold will run on natural gas'.The base of the LNG engines are actually diesel engines and they use a little diesel to ignite the LNG which is injected in the engine as CNG under high pressure (300 bar). So a small tank for diesel is on board.
To become LNG natural gas has to be cooled down to -162 degrees Celsius. The LNG tank is a large thermos which keeps the gas at a temperature between minus 120 and 162 degrees Celsius. At -162 degrees the pressure in the tank is 1 bar and rices to 4 or 10 bar at -140 to -120 degrees Celsius. At -110 the pressure is 15.9 bar. Then a safety valve opens to release the cold gas which will vaporise in the air, as Volvo demonstrated at the presentation of their LNG trucks. A second valve opens when the pressure is 22 bar. Volvo states that compared with a diesel engine LNG reduces CO 2 -emissions by 20 percent and when bio-LNG is used it will be 100 percent. On one load of LNG a truck can drive 1000 kilometres.
The growth in demand for LNG has to do with external influencers such as urbanisation, geopolitics, incentives and technology advancements.It is consistent with Shell’s first LNG Outlook, published in 2017. Shell even for sees potential LNG supply shortage as global demand surges. Based on current demand projections, a supply shortage might develop in mid-2020's.
Japan remained the world’s largest LNG importer in 2017, while China moved into second place as Chinese imports surged past South Korea’s. Shell calculates that the total demand for LNG in China reached 38 million tonnes and sees this as a result of continued economic growth and policies to reduce local air pollution through coal-to-gas switching.
Since 2000, the number of countries importing LNG has quadrupled and the number of countries supplying it has almost doubled. LNG trade increased from 100 million tonnes in 2000 to nearly 300 million tonnes in 2017. That’s enough gas to generate power for around 575 million homes. But also Shell sees a growing mismatch in requirements between LNG buyers and suppliers. LNG buyers continued to sign shorter and smaller contracts whilst suppliers still seek long-term LNG sales to secure financing. Shell states that this mismatch needs to be resolved to enable LNG project developers to make final investment decisions that are needed. See Shell’s full LNG Outlook for 2018 atwww.shell.com/lngoutlook
The Hydrogen Council coalition has launched its first ever globally quantified vision of the role of hydrogen. A study developed with support from McKinsey. The study shows that enabling hydrogen for energy transition it can reduce CO2 emissions by 6 gigtaons by 2050. Also the study shows that it can create millions of jobs.
Complete Taking the Hydrogen Council’s vision for hydrogen to the next level, the study entitled 'Hydrogen, Scaling up' outlines a comprehensive and quantified roadmap to scale deployment and it’s enabling impact on the energy transition. Deployed at scale, hydrogen could account for almost one-fifth of total final energy consumed by 2050. This would reduce annual CO2 emissions by roughly 6 gigatons compared to today’s levels, and contribute roughly 20% of the abatement required to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius.
On the demand side, the Hydrogen Council sees the potential for hydrogen to power about 10 to 15 million cars and 500,000 trucks by 2030, with many uses in other sectors as well, such as industry processes and feedstocks, building heating and power, power generation and storage. Overall, the study predicts that the annual demand for hydrogen could increase tenfold by 2050 to almost 80 EJ in 2050 meeting 18% of total final energy demand in the 2050 two-degree scenario.
Achieving such scale would require substantial investments; approximately 20 to 25 billion US-dollar annually for a total of about 280 billion US-dollar until 2030. Within the right regulatory framework – including long-term, stable coordination and incentive policies – the report considers that attracting these investments to scale the technology is feasible. The world already invests more than 1.7 trillion US-dollar in energy each year, including 650 billion in oil and gas, 300 billion in renewable electricity, and more than 300 billion US-dollar in the automotive industry.
The launch of the new roadmap came during the Sustainability Innovation Forum in the presence of 18 senior members of the Hydrogen Council led by co-chairs Takeshi Uchiyamada, Chairman of Toyota and Benoît Potier, Chairman and CEO, Air Liquide. Launched at the World Economic Forum in Davos in early 2017, the Hydrogen Council is a first-of-its-kind global CEO initiative to foster the role of hydrogen technologies in the global energy transition.
Hydrogen is a versatile and clean energy carrier that can be used as fuel for power or in industry as feedstock. Generating zero emissions at point of use, it can be produced from (renewable) electricity and from carbon-abated fossil fuels, thereby achieving completely zero-emission pathways. The uses for hydrogen continue to grow as it can be stored and transported at high energy density in liquid or gaseous form and can be combusted or used in fuel cells to generate heat and electricity. This versatility confers to hydrogen a key enabling role all together in the transport, the industry and the residential sectors, as well as for the large-scale storage of renewable energies, making it a promising solution to overcome the challenges of the energy transition.
Hydrogen, scaling up McKinsey study takeaways1 hydrogencouncil.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Hydrogen-scaling-up-Hydrogen-Council.pdf
GRUPO C COLOMBIA S.A.S. is the innovative company in bus travel with a trajectory of 16 years that has broken the limits in the provision of services focused on increasing the flow of passengers for traditional transport companies with its S.I.A.P. (Comprehensive Passenger Service) especially with the introduction of FreestyleBus that revolutionizes the industry giving customers more assistance, comfort, information, freedom and flexibility.